In The Name of Allah The Most Merciful The Most Compassionate

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In the name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful

The biography of religious scholar Sheikh Muhammad Yaqoobi

Shaikh Muhammad son of Sheikh Mosa son of Sheikh Muhammad Ali son of Sheik Yaqoob son of Alhaj Jaffar that forms the Yaoobi family, was one of the notables of Najaf and was trustworthy among the religious scholars. Undoubtedly, the late Sheikh Musa Jafar Kashif al-Ghita (died in 1243 AH) and who was awarded the title of reformer of both countries, helped them to build walls around Najaf to protect them from Wahhabi attacks.[1] They come from Aous Ansari tribe.[2]

Sheikh Muhammad Ali Yaqoobi

 

 

 Sheikh Mosa Yaqoobi

He was born in Najaf Al-Ashraf at the dawn of the Prophet’s birthday in 1380 AH corresponding to September 1960, and grew up in a religious scholarly family famous for rhetoric and literature. Therefore, a number of them composed dictionaries of literature, thought and oratory[3] such as his father Sheikh Musa (died in 1982 / 1402), the owner of the famous Al-Iman magazine, and his grandfather Sheikh Muhammad Ali (died in 1385 / 1965), nicknamed (Sheikh Al-Khataba), and his maternal grandfather, Sheikh Mahdi (died in 1372 AH / 1951 AD) And his paternal grandfather Sheikh Mahdi (died 1372 AH/1951 AD), and his great-grandfather Sheikh Yaqoub (died 1329 AH / 1910 AD), whose upbringing was supervised by the guardian of his father, the great scholar Sayyid Mahdi al-Qazwini (died 1300 AH) and he was a graduate of the mistical and moral school of the late Sheikh Jaafar al-Shushatri and the late Sheikh Hussein Qoli al-Hamdani.

He moved with his family to Baghdad in 1968 due to his father’s involvement in religious, social and political activities with the late martyr Sayyid Mahdi al-Hakim, son of the late Supreme Leader Muhsin al-Hakim (May his soul be pure), who enjoyed religious and social leadership in Baghdad. He acquired religious knowledge since his early childhood, as he accompanied his father, attended his speeches, picked them up accurately, and then narrated them in detail - after his return - to his mother (may God have mercy on her).

And his father (may Allah have mercy on him) used to praise his premature maturity in front of the scholars and people of grace. He started reading magazines and books when he was not more than ten years old. He wrote an extensive research titled (Al-Khumr Umm Al-Khabaith) Alcohol is the mother of all evils, in which he used dictionaries, commentary, hadith, literature and the best intellectual books while he was a middle school student and not even an adult. The books he studied became more profound as the years passed, and he was fond of reading biographies of great men and scholars. He even helped his late father Shaykh Musa to write the biographies of writers mentioned in his incomplete research on the manuscript of his late father Shaykh al-Khatba (in Sharif Razi's Diwan) although he was still a child and not even an adult. So these knowledge resources were the basis of their knowledge structure.

And around the year 1973, during the summer vacation, he entered a small religious seminary, which was built by the late Syed Ali Alavi (who migrated to Iran with his children in the year 1974) in Mohalla Al-Ubeidi, Baghdad.

He completed his worldly education at the Local Middle School Imam Sajjad (peace be upon him) in Baghdad, then enrolled in the Eastern Preparatory School in Karada and graduated from the same with good marks. And in the year 1982, he received the degree of B.A in civil engineering from the engineering faculty of Baghdad University.

He had to do military service. At that time, the war between Iran and Iraq was going on, but his religious training forbade him to wear the clothes of the oppressors and prevented him from becoming a part of their system even for a moment. He stayed at home, which could cost him his life, because government officials were spread everywhere, especially in Baghdad, and those who were left behind from military service were shot dead in a public gathering.

He devoted himself to reading, studying, contemplating and investigating, and began writing and composing - such as the book “The Role of the Imams in Islamic Life” "دورالأئمة في الحياة الإسلامية - without finding someone to take care of his competence in those compelling circumstances, until God, Blessed and Exalted, with His kindness, established a secret path through several means to communicate with the martyr Sayyid al-Sadr II ۔

He wrote many articles and letters in Islamic thought, ethics and self-civility, which were published in the form of two books, namely (الشهيد الصدر الثاني كما أعرفه and the book (Qanadeel Al-Arifeen- قناديل العارفين) as Inspired by these ideas, the martyr Sayyid al-Sadr al-Thani wrote his huge encyclopedia (Beyond Jurisprudenceما وراء الفقه) -) and a book (A Look at the Philosophy of Events in the Contemporary World- نظرة في فلسفة الأحداث في العالم المعاصر).

After the end of the war between Iran and Iraq in the year 1988, he came to Najaf Ashraf and married the daughter of the late Syed Mohsin Al Musawi Al Gharifi, Shaheed of Qiyam Shabani. The relationship between the two families was established which spanned one hundred and fifty years. Two sons and five daughters were born to them.

Participation in Shabani Qiyam with Marja Syed Muhammad al-Sadr

In 1991, he participated in the Qiyam-e-Shabani and went out with the Mujahideen of Najaf Ashraf to defend Karbala Muqadasa when the Republican forces attacked Karbala. But the Mujahideen sent him back to Najaf with unarmed men, so he did not get a chance to participate in the battle.

He wrote an important statement and some important words about the success of the establishment and encouraged the youth, and some of the words were broadcasted from the Haidari courtyard through a loudspeaker.

 Marja Syed Shaheed Muhammad Sadiq Sadr

Marja Syed Shaheed Muhammad Sadiq Sadr

Contact with Marja Syed Muhammad al-Sadr

After the revolutionaries pledged allegiance to the martyr Sayyid al-Sadr II, the leader of the revolution, one day before his arrest, formed five committees to lead it.

He made Sheikh Al-Yaqoubi head of the Political and Media Committee. However, these committees were unable to continue their work due to the attack of the Republican Guard forces on Najaf the day after their formation and the arrest of the martyr Sayyid al-Sadr II.

To be dressed in religious clothes

At the beginning of the year 1992 (Sha'ban/1412 AH), he put on religious clothes. And the senior Marja late Syed Khoi made him wear a turban at his house in Kufa. He was living in harsh conditions and a few people contacted him due to Qiyam-e-Shabani and his forced transfer to Baghdad.

The support of the authority of Shaheed Sadar Thani

 

 

He was the first helper of Syed Shaheed Sadr Thani and was his only supporter at the beginning of his declaration of Marjiyet in the same year. And this has been stated by Syed Shaheed Sadr himself in some recorded meetings. And his stay with him convinced many people inside and outside the scholarly community/ الحوزة العلمية to turn to Sayyid Shaheed until the scope of his authority expanded, and Sheikh Yaqubi became the second person in this religious authority after Sayyid Sadr.

 

Appointed as Dean in Al-Sadr Religious University

 

The Martyr Al-Sadr II (May his soul rest in peace) appointed him Dean of the Al-Sadr Religious University almost a year after its founding, and it is the institution that promotes the integrated project between the seminary and academic universities. He did not find a suitable person to lead this institution and achieve its goals, other than His Eminence the Sheikh, because he had a vast experience in both fields, - as he expressed to His Eminence the Sheikh, when he was assigned the task in the month of Safar 1419 AH.

Appointing him as his successor by Shaheed Syed Sadar Thani

He praised him a lot and used to refer to him, and some of his words have been published in the prelude of the books المشتق عند الأصوليين) و (قناديل العارفين)). And five months before his martyrdom and precisely on 5 Jumadi al-Thani 1419/corresponding to 27/9/1998 AD, he appointed Shaykh Ya'qubi as his deputy in a recorded meeting with the students of Al-Sadr Religious University and said: (Now I can say that the only representative of our Hawza after me is Mr. Muhammad Yaqubi and his ijtihad was witnessed... so he should take over the Hawza after me and I will not back down from this). He stayed with Syed Shaheed Sadr until his martyrdom in Dhul-Qaad 1419 AH/Shabat 1999 AD, and it was he who led the funeral prayers for him and his two sons. And in the midst of these harsh and terrible conditions and government armed executioners, he was buried along with a few of his friends.

His Eminence Sheikh Al-Yaqoubi took over the torch of the Islamic movement that was ignited by the martyr Sayyid Al-Sadr II in Iraq and take care of its bases of which his followers constitute the majority. The blessed Friday prayer, and the notes of His Eminence the Sheikh printed in a book entitled (Jihad and Ijtihad) included extensive details.

Religious studies:

His broad knowledge and cultural base which he acquired over twenty years of study and gatherings of scholars and preachers. Mr. Sheikh Yaqoubi started his religious education at the middle levels of the Islamic field (i.e. Sharh Lama, Principles of Fiqh, (Muzaffar) from Religious University of Najaf.

He spent his study period in full struggle. Along with his higher studies he also participated in dars Kharij at the request of Syyed Shaheed Sadar. He studied the principle of words/ الأصول اللفظية with him from Shawwal 1414 until his martyrdom in Dhul-Qa’dah / 1419 AH until his martyrdom in the month of Zee Qad1419Ah. Two volumes of his lectures on the topic of derivative/ مبحث المشتق were published. He attended the Practical principles of Research/ بحوث الأصول العملية of His Eminence Sheikh Muhammad Ishaq Al-Fayyad in the period (1417-1421). He attended the lectures on jurisprudence by Ayatollah Sayyid Al-Sistani from 1417 to 1420. He also studied jurisprudence/ الفقهwith the late martyr Mirza Ali Al-Gharawi from 1416 to 14 18 and brought them in written form.

He began teaching introductions/ المقدمـات a year before he joined the seminary at the University of Najaf. He used to teach the Risala Al-Amaliya (Minhaj al-Saliheen) of Syed Shaheed Sadr with reasoning and comparison and reflection, because at that time due to the strictness of the religious books by the oppressive system, sources were not available, and Shaheed Sadr In his recorded meetings, he called this teaching the proof of his knowledge, and Shaykh Ya'qubi probably considered the opinion of Syed Shaheed to be strong with reason.

 

After that, he started teaching intermediate levels (Lam'ah and Usul Fiqh) and high levels (Makasib and Kifayah), and his knowledge range was the widest in terms of attendance and usage. About 200 excellent students used to attend his lectures in Al-Ras al-Sharif Mosque near the Haram of Amirul Momineen (peace be upon him).

He began giving lectures as external research/ البحث الخارج in jurisprudence in (Sha'ban 1427 AH / 2006 AD). He chose the controversial issues to be the subject of his research, as he chooses issues of scientific depth and the subject of controversy among the jurists to be more mature for scientific virtue while having practical effects. More than 200 scholars and professors currently attend his lectures. Almost 60 crucial and significant scientific and practical issues were written. These lecture will be published in a book, named Fiqhul Khilaf/(فقه الخلاف). Twelve volumes of it have been published (so far) and two others are under publication. Among the features of his research is his exposure to the opinions of ancient masters and contemporary scholars from the holy schools of Najaf and Qom. One of the characteristics of his teaching is that he discusses the opinions of the ancient scholars and the contemporary scholars of the Schools of Najaf Ashraf and Qom.

His social movement

Religious and social activities in his teaching and Shikwa Al-Qur'an lectures:

Mr. Marja was fond of Islamic work and awareness movement since his childhood and used to go to mosques and listen to sermons and used to tell his friends about the religious and historical issues he learned. he used to study books that supported this thought, starting with Majla (Al-Ayman) which was published by his late father in the late sixties of the last century, and it was one of the sources of awareness of the sons of the Islamic movement.

He benefited from the writings of Islamic thinkers in his books and magazines, especially from martyr Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr. Then he obtained a special education through his correspondence with the martyr Sayyid al-Sadr al-Thani since 1985, so he took the initiative to join him as soon as he returned to his normal life in 1988.

When he wore the religious derss in 1992, the seminary / الحوزة opened for him wide horizons for the blessed religious work within the movement of the martyr al-Sadr al-Thani who admired his wisdom, insight, poise, morals and rapid progress in his scientific and practical qualifications. Although it was too early to declare him as a Marja. That is why he ordered to turn to Mr. Shaykh as a leader after him until his ijtihad is witnessed, then to turn to him as a leader and for taqlid. And all this is confirmed with the voice of Syed Shaheed Sadr Sani. And after the martyrdom of Sayyid Shaheed Sadr II (Quds Sira), Mr. Shaikh planned his work with patience and steadfastness to meet the challenges and consequences to which he had referred in his book (Jhad wa Ijthad/ جهاد واجتهاد).He followed new methods of work that resulted in restoring the luster of the Islamic movement and did not disperse it after the shock caused by the martyrdom of Sayyid Al-Sadr II in 1999.

In addition to his main job and responsibility which was to teach jurisprudence and principles, he wanted to utilize the big crowd included his followers and the people who trusted them and who were from different fields of life and who on some occasions used to give lectures about Islamic awareness[4] and deriving guidance and reform from the life of the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them) so that they could take the field of knowledge forward and fulfill their responsibility in the leadership of the society.

Those lectures disturbed the sleep of the former regime, so his servants stood at the door of the mosque and the nearby area to frighten the attendees. In one of the lectures, the director of Najaf security entered the mosque and asked the attendees to listen to him in order to instruct them to leave religious activity and educate the nation and to suffice with learning the customary lessons. These lectures were recorded audio and spread by thousands of cassettes in the cities of central and southern Iraq and outside of what was known as (the cassette revolution). The students of Al-Sadr Religious University had the courageous role in this publication with enthusiasm and sacrifice.

 

And the lectures (complaining of the Qur’an/ شكوى القران) caused a great shake in the awareness of the nation As well as a speech (How did the Messenger of God (may God bless him and his family and grant him peace) plan for the caliphate after him) and (What did the nation lose when someone who does not deserve it took over?) The Saddam regime believed that it was targeted by these discourses.

In the same way, Mr. Marja used to express his religious stance on important issues, such as his strong stance against the government's decision to ban the taking of file photos of female students with Sharia hijab and his voice reached everywhere due to which the cruel government was forced to cancel this decision. Similarly, he banned the sale and purchase of foreign cigarettes through which Saddam's descendants used to trade. Similarly, his wise stand against the American aggression on Iraq in 2003, which became the general stand of the Iraqi people. And the believers have widely welcomed those stances .They were the followers of different religious authorities.

His Eminence was conscious about young boys and girls, so he wrote (Jurisprudence of University Students/ (فقه طلبة الجامعات)), which spread strongly among university students, and thousands of copies were secretly printed from it, and the book (The Hawza and Youth Issues/الحوزة وقضايا الشباب), and under his supervision (Lessons for the Muslim child/دروس للصبي المسلم) and (Lessons for the young Muslim/دروس للفتى المسلم) and various stories and novels were published.

In the same way, he paid attention to the training and awareness of women, and among his works in this field are (The Jurisprudence of Muslim Women/فقه المرأة المسلمة), (The Role of Women in Building the New Iraq/دور المرأة في بناء العراق الجديد) and (The Forty ahadith in Women’s Issues/الأربعون حديثا في قضايا المرأة).Under his supervision published books like (رفقاً بالرجال يا قوارير), (Philosophy of Women's Legislation/فلسفة تشريعات المرأة) and (Women's Rhetoric between Reality and Ambition/الخطابة النسائية بين الواقع والطموح).

Among his activities, to which he devoted many of his publications, is diagnosing deviant phenomena and social problems and addressing them in the form of detailed statements and fatwas that include advice and exhortation, drawing attention to the negative social, economic, psychological, intellectual effects and so on.

These publications of his were distributed by thousands during the era of the former regime and caused headache for them as they themselves expressed it. In this regard, episodes of the book (Deviant Social Phenomena/ ظواهر اجتماعية منحرفة) and fourteen books of the series (Towards a Clean Society/ نحو مجتمع نظيف), (Beware of a Devil in Your Home/ احذر في بيتك شيطان), (Family Fiqh/ فقه العائلة), (Marriage and the Sexual Problem/ الزواج والمشكلة الجنسية) and others were published.

After the West announced the start of the “clash of civilizations” with the Muslim East after the events of (September 11/2001), His Eminence led a project to clarify the foundations of the two civilizations and the superiority of the civilization of Islam, and gave several lectures collected in the book (We and the West/ نحن والغرب), which was translated into some foreign languages.

One of the important activities that he carried out during the period of the former regime was organizing summer courses for two months during the vacation for university students, in which they received lessons in jurisprudence, ethics, beliefs, the Qur’an, and Islamic awareness. Nearly two hundred young men joined them. You find the detailed discussion in the book (Jihad and Ijtihad/ جهاد واجتهاد).

Religious Authority

Shaykh Ya'qubi was patient in declaring his ijtihad in respect to the the morals of the scholarly community, but at the request of his students, he continued to teach the principles of qifaya al-usul in Masjid al-Ras al-Sharif near the Holy Shrine of Amir al-Mu'minin (peace be upon him) which was the completion of the teachings of Syed Shaheed Sadr.

After that, in the year 1422 AH/2001 AD, in the presence of many teachers and scholars, he started a new series, which included discussion and debate on Sahib Kifaya and establishing his permanent principles.

In the same way, he published his arguments on some controversial issues from the year 1420 AH, due to which many people heard the will of Syed Shaheed Sadr about Mr. Sheikh, which was broadcasted with his voice and well convinced. The voce message was :( Now I can say that after me the only representative of our Hawza is Mr. Muhammad Yaqoobi and his ijtihad has been testified... so he should take over the Hawza after me and I will not back down from this).

Indeed, his will was fulfilled, but Mr. Sheikh believed that considering the prevailing culture of the scholarly field, the time has not yet come to declare ijtihad, although he had the ability, as it is said, but on the practical side, the importance is not less than the existence of ability.

He used to advice the followers of Syed Shaheed Sadar to be patient because the world needs an Islamic leader more than it needs a religious authority. There are religious authorities, I mean maraja/ مراجع existing and people can consult them whenever they face any issue. He said:( the Iraqi people do not want just a marja but they want a maraja plus a political leader.its not good to follow a marja in religious matters and consult others in other matters of life. They need a multidimensional personality. He said:

If Allah gave me life and let me live for many more years, then ultimately there are people among my students in whom I see sincerity, hard work, ijtihad, purity of heart, experience, piety, etc., and they are scholars. They are capable of taking on the responsibility of Houza and that time they would be the great scholars of the time.[5]

His Eminence the Sheikh was interested in addressing the leadership of the Islamic movement in Iraq during that period.

And when he declared his ijtihad in the sermons of Friday prayers in the holy Kazmiya on April 2003 in the month of Safar 1424 AH, then, after being informed about his rational researches, a large number of religious scholars, religious authorities testified his ijtihad in the year 1424 AH/2004 AD. These great religious personalities and authorities are as under:

- Mr. Ayatollah Sheikh Muhammad Ali Al-Karami (whom Ayatollah Sheikh Montazeri gave permission for ijtihad).

- Mr. Ayatollah Sheikh Muhammad Sadeghi Tehrani (to whom Syed Khoi gave permission for ijtihad in the year 1386 AH).

His Eminence, Ayatollah Sheikh Muhammad Al-Sadiqi Al-Tahrani (given permission for ijtihad by Sayyid Al-Khoei in 1386 AH)

And other scholars etc. May Allah have mercy on the deceased and protect the rest.

The attention of scholars and intellectuals, especially the followers of Syed Shaheed Sadr 2 increased towards him to start Marjiyyah. But he enjoined them to be patient and wait and to give respite to the officials so that they could discharge their duties without creating sensitivities and difficulties. And after the martyrdom of Syed Shaheed Sadr 2 in the year 1999, he continued to lead the Islamic movement, because Sheikh Yaqoubi never declared  religious authority and leadership as the goal, rather it was the establishment of religion, the teachings of Ahl al-Bayt (a.s.). (Peace be upon them) a tool of protecting the dignity of human beings and defending their rights and leading the individual and the society on the path of development.

His Eminence Sheikh Al-Yaqoubi never saw religious authority and leadership as a goal, but rather as a means to establish religion, spread the teachings of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them), preserve human dignity, defend their rights and elevate the individual and society on the ladder of perfection, so his concern was to seek to support the seminaries. Scientific dissemination and assistance to those engaged in science and work, filling the empty arenas of religious work, reforming corruption and deviation by reviving the duty of enjoining good and forbidding evil and calling for doing good and raising awareness to raise Islam and the pride of its sons before approaching religious authority.

 

In the year 1427 AH/2006 AD, after starting the external discussion/ بحث خارج and showing excellent academic ability, which was published under the name of (Fiqh al-Khilaf/ فقه الخلاف) Encyclopedia. In the eyes of many teachers, scholars, knowledgeable believers and educated people, the need for the beginning of Marjiyyah increased.

And with this, Mr. Shaykh identified many empty fields of religious practice so that Islam and Muslims would be exalted and the invitation to God Almighty would spread, and this was only possible with the title of Marjiyyah.

His Eminence presented his practical treatise/ رسالته العملية (سبل السلام) for printing in 1430 AH / 2009 AD, advising the believers to consult him traditionally after they used to consult him for leadership and guidance. His main concern was to fill this void, support seminaries and spread them in Muslim countries and help those engaged in education and work.

His deep scientific research, high morals, and conscious discourses that accommodate contemporary issues, concerns and aspirations of Muslims contributed to persuading more believers to turn to him, until it became clear that his blessed religious authority today comes in second place after that of Sayyid al-Sistani.

This has been proven according to the statistics conducted by a team of specialized Western experts on basis of millions of visitors in the Arbaeen Ceremony, and they were assisted by trained teams. The study was published in a book entitled (الوجهة كربلاء)[6] printed and published by the General Secretariat of the al-Abbas's holy shrine, and the results showed that the followers of  marja Yaqubi are more than the total of the followers of other religious authorities except for Mr. Sistani of course.

Requests continued to open offices and representations of His Eminence in various countries of the world, but he only responded to achieve the above purposes, as there are today in Qom, Mashhad, Lebanon, Syria, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Indonesia, Thailand, Burma and more than 20 African countries.

 

The late religious authority Mr. Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi(God bless his soul)

Late Marja Syed Mahmood Shahrudi's point of view about Mr. Marja Sheikh Muhammad Yaqoobi

 According to the late Marja syed Mahmood Hashmi Shahroodi, Mr. Yaqoobi was a strong religious authority and prepared him _according to two of his closest scholars_ and appointed him as the head of the magazine (Fiqh Ahl Al-Bayt/ فقه أهل البيت, peace be upon them) in Which His Eminence oversees by publishing the deductive jurisprudential research of His Eminence in the Department of Jurisprudential Research that publishes the research of senior religious authorities and scholars, and described it strong and accurate.

 

The voice of religious authority in the United Nations (UNESCO).

The voice of his blessed authority reached the United Nations, which is indicated in the two publications that were published by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) about Najaf.

An indication to his blessed authority in two of his publications

In the first edition, entitled (Najaf, the Gate of Wisdom), it was stated that (and these four great authorities were joined by a new authority that surpasses them in modernity and commitment to political matters, and it is Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi, one of the students of Sayyid Muhammad Muhammad Sadeq al-Sadr, the charismatic man who was assassinated in 1999, and he runs a religious school, and he rose to the position of religious authority, as he attracted many imitators from inside Iraq)[7]

In the second edition, entitled (Najaf: History and Development of the Holy City), it was stated that “there are other scholars who became matja/ religious authority. Prominent among them is the Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi, who enjoys a distinguished position. The authority Muhammad al-Yaqoubi bacame Marja based on a written will from his teacher, Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr.[8]

In another place, he said: (When the people of Najaf mention Marjiyyah, they mean one or all of the four elders, and Muhammad Yaqubi is added as the fifth Marjayah).[9]

The sayings of scholars about him:

Many words were issued by religious personalities, senior scholars and virtuous people in declaring the sheikh’s eligibility for marjayyat and leadership, and praising his conscious thought, insight, and his uplifting civilized project. We mention here some of what was published[10] in the names of its owners, and we keep the rest:

 

1. Syed Shaheed sadar2 said in the introduction to the book (المشتق عند الأصوليين) in which His Eminence the Sheikh had written the lectures of his teacher and Shaheed Sadar made it the second volume in his encyclopedia Manhaj al-Usool, said:

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله على خير خلقه محمد وآله الطيبين الطاهرين واللعنة الدائمة على أعدائهم أجمعين.

In the name of of Allah the most Gracious, the most Merciful

Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds, and may God’s peace and blessings be upon the best of his creation, Muhammad, and his pure and good family, and the permanent curse be upon all their enemies.

After that, indeed, on religion in general and on me in particular, although I am a sinful servant, one of the blessings of God Almighty is that He has given me virtuous, sincere students and hard-working people. May God reward them all with the best reward of the doers of good. The most important among them is this venerable and the distinguished noble scholar, Sheikh Muhammad Musa al-Yaqoubi.

 

He attended our lessons regularly in the science of principles and gave them sufficient attention in understanding, writing and studying, and here he presents to us in this book a model of his efforts and his nights of thinking. I have reviewed and audited it and found it adequate for the purpose and relevant to the principles. But I considered him to be the author and he has freedom of expression, even though I am the original author. But I have given him the permission of that with the condition of protecting meaning and the clarification of foundation.

Undoubtedly, he will take steps towards ijtihad and sustainability with this great effort and hard work. I hope a bright future for him in the field of knowledge and practical life and I wish that he will be among the sincere followers and pious leaders. May Allah reward him with the best reward for the doers of good. And praise belongs to Allah, who is the Lord of the worlds.

 

This text was written on the 19th of Ramadan, 1418 AH.

Muhammad al-Sadr[11]

And he wrote to His Eminence the Sheikh a letter in his own handwriting in which he nominates him to succeed him and what is stated in it.

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

شيخنا الأجل دام عزك بعد التحية والسلام.

Our honorable sheikh, may your honor always be eternal, after respect and salam, it is said:

As you know, I used to count you among my best and pure hearted and righteous students and still do. If there is a day in the future when the matter of choosing a Marjiyah comes up, I will choose you so that Marjiyyah remains in the hands of scholars who are just and fulfill the needs of others, and not in the hands of individuals who are hard-hearted and worldly. Still I am thinking to make you responsible for leading prayers in my absence and that would be an initial step for that and you clear letter does not stop me from this initiative. Just as I have not found in my students so far, despite their large number and diversity of their attitudes and tastes, who is a bearer of the conditions that I expect more from you, so God fulfilled my hope in you with His help and strength.

1 Jumada al-Thani 1418.[12]

 

2. Religious reference His Eminence Ayatollah Sheikh Muhammad Ali Al-Garami (may his shadow last long)

It is clear that scholars are the guardians of the true religion and the ink of their pen decides between truth and falsehood, among these scholars is Shaykh Yaqoubi (may his shadow last long). Indeed, I glanced at some of his books and read some of them carefully, and saw that they were accurate and comprehensive, so in my opinion he (may his shadow last long) is a mujtahid and he can follow his own conclusions. May God make him successful, and I think he will be one of the personalities who will serve Islam and Muslims in the future. May God help us and him to please him.

14 Dhul Qi'dah 1424 AH.

3. The late religious reference, Ayatollah Sheikh Muhammad Al-Sadiqi (may his secret be sanctified), author of the interpretation of Al-Furqan

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم، الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله على محمد وآله الطيبين الطاهرين.

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, and may Allah bless Muhammad and his good and pure family (peace be upon them)After that, indeed I reviewed the jurisprudential pamphlets of the respected Shaykh Ayatollah Shaykh Muhammad Yaqoobi (May Allah protect him and bless him forever), so I found him to be a precise, profound, knowledgeable and diligent mujtahid. , so he can follow his jurisprudential conclusions which are prevalent among the jurists, especially those jurists who give originality to the Qur'an in their fatwas.

Peace be upon you and may Allah have mercy on you

Qom Al-Maqdisa _ Muhammad Sadeghi Tehrani

8/ Dhul Hajj al-Haram/ 1424 AH.

The religious authority, the late Ayatollah Sayyed Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah (God bless his soul).

Peace be upon you and may Allah's mercy and blessings be upon you. And then..

((We appreciate Sheikh Al Yaqoubi in his culture, charity, and steadfastness, and we pray for him to be successful in his Islamic, cultural, and jihadi activities, and we hope that the believers will benefit from his sermons and instructions.

  Syed Muhammad Hussain Fazlullah

7 Sha'ban 1425 AH.

His writings/books:

His Eminence in research, composition and writing stems from the actual need to present something or diagnose a scientific, intellectual, moral or social void that must be covered. And according to him, the goal of compilation is not to increase the number of books in the library, but each book participates in adding something modern to religious knowledge and according to the needs of time with the best and ideal ideology it fulfills the interests of the religion and the nation. Therefore, his compilations are also diverse, and along with his researches and compilations in Tafsir, Fiqh, Usul, Rizal, language, Literature and History, he paid attention to many issues as Such as (the universality of Islam and the ability to lead humanity, correct beliefs, the guardianship and virtue of the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them), Husayni and Fatimi and Mahdawi matter, Wilayat al-Faqih/government of a jurisprudent, Islamic brotherhood, the Husayni pulpit, Friday prayer, the role of the mosque, the Responsibilities of religious authority, family, education and married life, Islamic personality, cultural invasion, taking advantage of time, media, human development, peaceful environment, cold war, cultural war with the West, human state and human dignity, women. , youth, knowledge acquisition, civil society organizations, economy, society, politics, reform of tribal system and deviant issues.[13] This diversity discovers the depth of the message of the great religion of Islam and offers its answer and solutions to various modern problems and addresses the minds of various thoughts and movements.

In the same way, it reflects[14] the organization of wise authority in the fields of Islamic practice and its power. And when the leadership of the nation requires fulfilling all aspects of life and keeping an eye on the changes, Mr. Sheikh Yaqoobi (may his shadow last long) undertook to provide solutions to the problems that hindered building a healthy society and leading a dignified life. Therefore, statements, lectures and books on training, ethics, society, history, economics, and politics etc. came out from his side. Whereas before and after that, only reasoning studies were delivered.[15]

 

 

 

The books of His Eminence that have been published:

1. (From the light of the Qur'an)/ (من نور القرآن)

(Min Noor Al-Qur'an) is a subjective, dynamic and moral commentary which is derived from the light of the Holy Qur'an. In it, he shed light on religious, moral, intellectual, or social issues, and in each chapter he focuses on a specific issue and explains the details after the interpretation of the verse. Therefore, it is a subjective exegesis because it looks at the verses from the point of view of integrating the verses and solving the problems, and it is motivational because it tries to implement the Qur'anic role in human life. And moral dimension is that it describes the Quranic stand regarding the guidance of man towards perfection. Five volumes of this book have been published.

2. (Jurisprudence of disagreement)/ (فقه الخلاف)

This is a collection of argumentative and comparative jurisprudence. It sheds light on complex issues that are highly contested and test the jurisprudence of the jurisprudent such as wife's inheritance in land and waqoof/stay with Ahl al-Sunnah in Arafa, as well as discussing modern issues such as artificial vaccination, jurisprudential issues related to currency devaluation, zakat of financial documents (money), and fasting and praying in Qutabin/North pole and South pole. And presented problems that were not there before, such as the inheritance of children's children while there are real children other than the parents, and in the case of Zakat related to property, fasting of the traveler. In the same way, such problems have been highlighted in detail which have not been organized in jurisprudential encyclopedias such as Kitab al-Amr bi al-Marif wa al-Nahi an al-Mankar/ كتاب الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر. Other than that, 12 volumes have been published and two others are in print. Some issues were printed in separate books.

3. (خطاب المرحلة)/ Khitab ul Marhala

This is an encyclopedia that after the assumption of Islamic leadership and the martyrdom of Syed Shaheed Sadr II (Quds Sira) in the year 1999, that describes the statements, words of Mr. Marja (may his shadow last long) about various religious, humanitarian, patriotic, state and national issues. Its 12 volumes have been published and it has been compiled chronologically, and the first and second volumes are devoted to the era before the fall of Saddam's regime.

4. (سبل السلام)/ (Ways of peace)

A practical treatise on worship, one volume, and the book, even if it follows the path and methodology of contemporary jurists, contains with it examples suitable for contemporary culture and clarification of some issues. The book also included several sermons and spiritual and social benefits to satisfy all dimensions of legal ruling.

5. (Al-Darr al-Asuliyyah)/ (الدرر الاصولیہ): this is a collection of principles which Mr. Marja explained during the discussion and it was collected by Mr. Sheikh Haider Saadi and divided into chapters. And it was published in the form of a large thick volume.

6. (A Good role model for Leaders and Reformers)/ (الأسوة الحسنة للقادة والمصلحين)

An analytical study of the biography of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), but deviates from the well-known method of narrating history, it is a single volume.

7. (The Role of the Imams in Islamic Life)/ (دور الأئمة في الحياة الإسلامية)

This is a detailed account of a similar title which was published by Syed Shaheed Sadr I (May his soul rest in eternal peace) in Najafi magazine (Al-Iyman). It has a volume and it is attached to a volume of (Some Lessons Derived from the Life of) in which there are discussions and comments on the book by Syed Shaheed Sadr Second (May his soul rest in eternal peace)

8. (Al-Qayyam al-Fatimi)/ (القيام الفاطمي)  This book is a collection of sermons by Mr. Shaykh about the annual Fatimid Pilgrimage and along with them there are sayings and hadith about the life of Siddiqa Tahira (peace be upon her).

9. (Quranic Knowledge and the Hussaini minbar)/ (المعارف القرآنية والمنبر الحسيني) Forty Qur’anic lectures on the method of Hussaini majalis to present Qur’anic material for the Hussaini minbar preachers, a large volume.

10. (The inhabitant of the heart)/ (ساکن القلب) A Quranic reading on the emotional relationship between the servant and his Creator, the Blessed and Exalted, taken from the noble hadith (The heart is the sanctuary of God, so do not dwell in the sanctuary of God but God) 1 volume.

11. (Mathematics for Jurisprudent)/ (الرياضيات للفقیہ) is a unique book in its field, in which some jurisprudential problems are explained using the principles of mathematics and presented in a simple style, but it is accurate. Indeed, many jurisprudential problems are best linked with mathematics. It has a volume.

12. (The Derivative of the Fundamentals)/ (المشتق عند الأصوليين)

These are the debate speeches of his teacher Syed Shaheed Sadr Sani (May his soul rest in eternal peace) which are about the origin of the principle of knowledge. It consists of a large volume consisting of two parts and its first part has been printed in the encyclopedia of Munhaj al-Usul of Syed Shaheed Sadr (May his soul rest in eternal peace).

13. Future milestones of seminary / المعالم المستقبلية الحوزة العلمية

In it, Mr. Marja has described the plan for the development and fulfillment of the duties of the Hoza Ilmiya in the early days of the leadership of Tehreek-e-Islami.

14. (Qanadeel ul-Arifeen)/ (قناديل العارفين) A collection of messages exchanged with the Shaheed Syed Sadr 2 (May his soul rest in eternal peace) in the discipline of the soul and purification of the heart on the way of the people of righteous behavior, dating back to the eighties of the last century during his house arrest, one volume.

15. Shaheed Sadar as I know him? (الشھید الصدر کما اعرفه)

These are the notes of Mr. Marja in which he has recorded his relationship with Syed Shaheed Sadr 2 until his martyrdom. It consists of some intellectual researches exchanged in the 1980s. It has a volume.

16. - (A Look at the Philosophy of Events)/ (نظرة في فلسفة الأحداث) It is a research Written by the Shaheed Syyed Sadar 2 (May his soul rest in eternal peace). And Mr. Sheikh has commented on this and added some contents, and this is also one of the results of the eighties.

17. Three complainer/ ثلاثة يشكون

This is an explanation of the Hadith that talks about Quran,scholar and mosque. It has just one volume. All three types of it have been printed in the form of permanent books and Shakwi al-Qur'an has become more popular.

18. (Sheikh Musa Al-Yaqoubi, his life, his poetry)./ (الشيخ موسى اليعقوبي حياته، شعره)

 It contains the biography of his father, the late Sheikh Musa Yaqoobi, and has colelected his manuscript poems.

19. (Unified Language Theory in Balance)/ (نظرية اللغة الموحدة في الميزان)

It is a booklet on the critique of theory, which has about forty points, and this booklet has been published in the encyclopedia (Khattab al-Marhala).

20. (Did Al-Khansa have four sons who were martyred in the Battle of Al-Qadisiyah)/ (هل كان للخنساء أربعة بنين استشهدوا في معركة القادسية)

A historical investigation to demonstrate the falsity of this case and the motive for its placement, devoted in the Encyclopedia of Stage Discourse.

21. (Professional jurisprudence)/ (فقه ذوي المهن)

This is a collection of booklets in which Mr. Shaikh, applying his call to social jurisprudence, has explained the Shariah rulings for various sectors of society and those who work in them, such as doctors, computers, teachers, security forces, universities. Fiqh of students, currency exchangers, farmers, barbers, hunters, drivers etc. They have been collected in three volumes.

22. (Jaafar Al-Tayyar)/ (جعفر الطيار)

 The boy of purity, chastity and jihad. Lack of definition?

23. Selection of ways of peace/ (منتخب سبل السلام)

A brief practical pamphlet in worship and matters.

24. (The Rites of Hajj and Umrah)/ (مناسك الحج والعمرة)

This is a practical magazine about the rulings of Hajj and Umrah, in which the Sunnahs, manners and recommendations of Hajj and Umrah are described. Apart from this, by the grace of God Almighty, it contains some useful advice and guidance and tells how to perform Hajj and Umrah rituals well. Similarly, this book contains specific appendices with questions about the Shariah rulings related to Hajj and Umrah. Apart from this, some modern issues are mentioned.

25. The jurisprudence of industrial reproduction/ فقه الانجاب الصناعي

It has just one volume. It is a comparative and jurisprudential research that establishes the legal rulings for infertility treatment operations for men and women.

This is a series of lectures given by Marja Deen Shaikh Muhammad Yaqoubi for the senior students of Hoza Ilmiya Najaf.It  continued for several months and ended on July 2020 according to Dhul-Qa'd 1441 AH. In it, Mr. Sheikh has mentioned that infertility can be treated in three ways:

_ Artificial vaccination

_ Transplantation of reproductive organs

_ Transplantation of such tissues (cells) that make new organs in place of damaged organs.

26. (Jihad and Ijtihad)/ جهاد واجتهاد

These are some excerpts from the notes and biographies of Mr. Marja Yaqoobi, beginning with his early youth joining Tehreek-e-Islami and after the martyrdom of his teacher Syed Shaheed Sadr 2, while facing the conditions of taking over the leadership of Tehreek-e-Islami in Iraq, it ends with the situations that happened when he declared his ijtihad and took over religious authority.

By flipping through the pages of the book, the reader will be aware of the history of the important events that took place in Iraq, beginning with the eighties of the last century, in which the Iraqi society witnessed an awakening, and movements against the oppressive regime appeared. , and reaches new challenges after the fall of the oppressive regime and the American occupation of Iraq.

27. The brilliant jurisprudence of the traveler’s fast: This is one of the researches of Fiqh al-Khilaf, which were collected in order to form a permanent book on rational discussions about the fasting of the traveler and the rulings on its qaza.

This book is unique because of its academic depth, understanding, comprehensiveness, research of sayings and possibilities, academic courage, combination of sciences, such as principles, rijal, beliefs, history, and academic sciences. And many problems have been described in it in a perfect and harmonious system. Apart from this, there are other features.

The importance of this book is further enhanced by the creativity in some of the conclusions that Mr. Shaikh drew in his discussion. And whoever tried to present a solution to these problems did not reach it.

28. (The highest and most honorable duties) (أسمى الفرائض وأشرفها)

This book consists of a collection of lectures of Mr. Marja Sheikh Yaqoobi, which he gave to the scholars and teachers of Hawza Ulmiya Najaf during his Dars Kharij. These are taken from Fiqh al-Khilaf and printed in the form of a permanent book, because they are in accordance with the general culture of all and lay the foundation of consciousness and awareness of the Shariah obligation to revive this noble duty.

29. The jurisprudence of power sharing/ فقه المشاركة في السلطة

It is a jurisprudential debate that includes Qur'anic, social and political debates and is part of Fiqh al-Khilaf debates, but it has been given a permanent form because it is of general benefit to scholars, researchers and academics. Therefore, it specifically establishes the Islamic view on certain political issues and this view originates from the strong and authoritative school of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them). As this discussion lays the foundation of a problem which created a lot of disagreement among the Imamiyyah jurists (May Allah increase them in honor). It is the duality of boycott and loyalty, positive or negative in dealing with the ruling authorities, boycott that may reach armed confrontation and work to remove the regime and friendship is likely to lead to deviations in certain established principles.

Documents

The message written by Shaheed Sadr 2 in his own writing, which was published in the book (Qandeel Al-Arifeen).

 

Appendix No. 1: In the documentation:

Letter 1.

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Our honorable Sheikh, stay always blessed. After respect and salam, hope you will consider the following points:

As you know, I used to count you as one of my best and most sincere students and still do. If there is a day in the future in which the matter of choosing a marjiyet comes up, I will choose you so that the marjiyet remains in the hands of scholars who are just and fulfill the needs of others not in the hands of those who are hard –hearted and materialists.

I have even thought a lot about making you the Pesh Imam in my absence so that the initial step could be taken and still I think about it. Hope you do not mind.

Thus, I have not yet found anyone among my students who is better than you and fulfilling all the conditions, although their number is more and their thinking and tastes are diverse. Indeed, Allah fulfilled my wish through you with His help and strength.

1 Jumadi al-Thani 1418 Hijri.

 

Letter 2.

 

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

الحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى على محمّدٍ وآله الطيبين الطاهرين.

Praise be to God, Lord of the worlds, and blessings and peace be upon Muhammad and his good and pure family.

After that, indeed, I read the jurisprudential researches of the respected Shaykh Ayatollah Shaykh Muhammad Yaqoobi (May Allah protect him and bless him forever), so I found him to be a precise, profound, knowledgeable and diligent mujtahid. , so he can follow his jurisprudential conclusions which are prevalent among the jurists, especially those jurists who give originality to the Qur'an in their fatwas.

Peace be upon you and may Allah have mercy on you

Qom Al-Maqdisa _ Muhammad Sadeghi Tehrani

8/ Dhul Hajj al-Haram/ 1424 AH.

 

Letter 3.

 

Marja Deeni Shaykh Muhammad Ali Grami (Dam Zillah)'s handwritten testimony.

 

In the name Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

It is clear that scholars are the guardians of the true religion and the ink of their pen decides between truth and falsehood, among these scholars is Shaykh Yaqoubi (may has shadow last long). Indeed, I glanced at some of his books and read some of them carefully, and saw that they are accurate and comprehensive, so in my opinion he (Dam Zillah) is a mujtahid and can follow his conclusions. May God make him successful, and I think he will be one of the personalities who will serve Islam and Muslims in the future. May Allah make us and him successful in attaining His happiness.

14 Dhul Qa'd 1424 AH.

 

Letter 4.

The testimony of religious authority Syed Muhammad Hussain Fazlullah (May his soul rest in peace).

 

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

Peace be upon you, may God's mercy and blessings be upon you

After that, we appreciate Sheikh Yaqoobi's culture, truth and steadfastness and pray for success in his Islamic cultural and Jihadi activities, and hope that the believers will benefit from his advice and guidance.

Syed Muhammad Hussain Fazlullah

7 Sha'ban 1425 AH.

 

Appendix No. 2: In the documentation:

His projects:

Mr. Sheikh Yaqoubi believes that the responsibility for many activities of Marjiyyah should be in the hands of institutions and not in the hands of individuals, especially after the fall of the Saddam regime in 2003 according to Safar 1424 AH, the scope of action has expanded, and Islamic Blessed projects, which were completely banned, have got an opportunity to be implemented. So he actually proceeded to establish these institutions immediately after the down fall of the regime, so the founding conference of the (Jama'at al-Fudla) was held on April 30, 2003, corresponding to Safar 27, 1424 AH. The group includes the virtuous people of the seminary who have social activity and interest in the missionary awareness and mobilizing the project of Islam in the reality of the nation until it is convinced of it and adopts it and the meritorious manage the project related to their specialization.

The nucleus of this blessed launch was the students of Al-Sadr Religious University, who received scientific, moral and intellectual education from him. He also visited Baghdad and stayed there for three days, and led the Friday prayer in the Al-Kazemi Holy Shrine on Safar 22, corresponding to 4/25/2003 AD, where he directed the crowded thousands to what should be done. To seek to achieve political, economic, social and cultural demands in light of the new transformations,

 

and he invited them to a massive march on the following Monday to Al-Firdaws Square in central Baghdad to confirm these demands.

It was a very large demonstration that extended for several kilometers, a number of intellectuals and academic professors met him as well on this occasion.

His Eminence directed his followers to form a political party to participate in the political process after the fall of Saddam in 2003 to achieve humanitarian, Islamic and national goals.

He will have the role of leadership and embodying principles. A number of his Eminence’s political theses, visions, positions, and diagnosis of solutions and problems have been collected in a huge volume entitled (Political Texts)/ (نصوص سياسية), and a book has been published for him in the ethics of political work entitled (Towards a Clean Politics)

/ (نحو سياسة نظيفة).

His Eminence also directed several segments to organize their affairs and activate their role in entities specialized in religious, cultural, charitable, clan, social and development work.

The two segments of women and youth have received special attention from His Eminence, and the literature of the establishment of these entities, their mechanisms of action and their goals are found in the Encyclopedia (خطاب المرحلة). His Eminence continues to support these institutions. Among the institutions that exist now, with the grace of God, the Blessed and Most High, other than the group of the virtuous, we mention:

 

1-   Al-Sadr Religious University:

This university came into existence in the year 1417 AH/1997 AD under the leadership of Syed Shaheed Sadr 2 (may his soul rest in peace) and its aim is to attract holders of academic degrees to the Hawza and embrace them in an ambitious project that combines the two studies and renews the elements of the Hawza’s personality.

After his martyrdom, he continued this project with wisdom and bravery, and after the fall of the Saddam regime, he opened branches of this university in different provinces and currently there are more than 24 branches[16]. And the number of students in the central and southern provinces is approximately (2000), six of them are in Baghdad and two in Najaf Ashraf.

 

His Eminence has written policies and methods of this university and the strategy of working in these branches in the book (جامعة الصدر الدينية: الهوية والإنجازات). And the period of study in it is eight years, of which the first three years are in the Faculty of (Religious Guidance and Social Reform)/ (التوجيه الديني والإصلاح الاجتماعي), three years for the faculty of (Faculty of Teacher Training)/ (كلية إعداد المدرسين) and 7 th and 8th years for the (faculty of restricted Ijtihad).

It also provides an opportunity to the students to participate in Gars Kharij and so far many of its batches have graduated.

 

 

 

2. Al-Zahra University for Religious Sciences. (جامعة الزهرا عليها السلام للعلوم الدينية)

It is similar to Sadr University in terms of education system and stages, but it is exclusive to women. It came into being after the fall of the government in the year 1424 AH/2003 AD, and today it has more than 20 branches in Najaf and other provinces which consists of (2600) female students. The study system takes into account the nature of women's responsibilities in social work.

 

 

3. Institute for female preachers/ مَجْمَع المبلغات الرساليات:

 

This complex is an institution that is connected to the office of religious authority Sheikh Muhammad Yaqubi (Dam Zillah) in Najaf Ashraf through a central committee. This institution has several branches in different provinces.

This complex supports women preachers in different areas of Iraq materially and spiritually, and provides them with opportunities to preach the religion in different fields.

The Association of the daughters of the Prophet (May God bless him and his family and grant them peace), which was established immediately after the fall of the regime, is the first nucleus of this entity

 

 

4. The Happy Home Foundation/ مؤسسة (البيت السعيد):

As an important step in building a righteous person, the Happy Home Foundation was established to address a major problem that has afflicted the Muslim community in recent decades.

It is the problem of exacerbating divorce cases, the reluctance of young people to marry, and the inability of married people to confront and solve critical problems, due to ignorance of the rights of both parties, lack of wisdom in managing the marital life, and failure to understand the philosophy of marriage and the foundations of a successful married life.

That's why this foundation (Al Bayt Al Saeed) came into being to fill this gap and treat the cultural deficiency found in married people. This work is done by answering people's questions in educational courses, seminars, TV shows and social networks. Several books have come out about this field which are distributed among the newly married couples to make them aware of their new responsibility.

 

 

 

5. Council of intellectuals and notables)/ مجلس الحكماء والأعيان:

The council includes notables of society and people of experience in various fields and people of wisdom and guidance in presenting correct visions and solving problems. It would be a support and advisor to the religious and political leaders and put the situation of the clans at the center of its concern. Just like the tribal system, the elders and the important people of the society are among the priorities of the wise authority, because the tribal existence is active in the Iraqi society, but in general in the entire Muslim society.

Therefore, it is necessary to establish an institution that will pay attention to tribal needs and send delegations to meet them, and conduct jurisprudential and cultural courses for them, and help them resolve social problems and differences, so that we can go on the path of development and evolution together with our tribes and the whole society and remove conflicts.

 

 

 

6. Ain Center for Contemporary Studies and Research/ مركز عين للدراسات والبحوث المعاصرة:

Its target is culture and ideas and it offers solutions and suggestions to the problems of modern man.it runs with a firm belief that Islamic civilization can lead life and present a role model according to the needs of the present age, but without going away away from its principles. The center seeks to raise collective awareness of cultural problems, causes of decay and the dominance of unrealistic values in society by conducting research programs, cultural goals and courses on research writing and broadcasting.

In the same way, this center believes that the Islamic solution comes forward with its proper roots, so it wants to establish a foundation based on pure Islamic principles, away from all the restrictions around it.

The Center has issued more than a hundred books in various fields of knowledge. It has also held conferences and symposia, hosted scientific and university figures from inside and outside Iraq, held several courses, and publishes a specialized magazine in religious sciences under the name of “Deduction” and another on Islamic awareness in the name of “Faith.”

 

 

 

7. Al-Abrar Religious School/ مدرسة الأبرار الدينية[17]

It is a seminary institution that aims to produce the best scholars, writers and preachers, this madrasah follows a strict curriculum for the study of Islamic thought and related sciences. In the educational method, it has a special place in the Qur'anic, hadith, ethical and modern study lessons which fulfills the need of reading these sciences in the present age. This seminary came into existence in the year 1439 AH / 2018 AD. Geographically, it is located in Najaf Ashraf, in front of Al Madinah Street.

 

 

                                    

 

 

8. Institute for Science and Religion/ مؤسسة ملتقى العلم والدين[18]

It is an organization for young people (Youth Foundation) which combines contemporary sciences and religious studies, and trains young people in religious, academic and cultural dimensions, for which it is a special educational, cultural, research and study center. Organizes programs in order to prepare competent leaders for the management of institutions and religious projects according to the Islamic principles and sira Masoomeen (peace be upon them).

It works to create active link between religious and academic and social institutions to lead the society towards development.

The center has published more than a hundred books in various academic fields, organized conferences and seminars inside and outside Iraq, and held meetings with religious and university personalities, and organized several courses, and it publishes a specialized magazine called (Al-Istinbat) and a magazine about Islamic awareness called (Al-Iman).

 

 

 

 

9. The Foundation of Prayer as a Pillar of Religion/ مؤسسة الصلاة عمود الدين:

Prayer has a great importance and effects in human beings life in this world and the world hereafter because it is one of the most significant remembrances. It gives peace and tranquility and steadfastness in the world. Allah says: (أَلَا بِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ تَطْمَئِنُّ الْقُلُوبُ) “Be aware that hearts find peace with the remembrance of God.” And because prayer is the slogan and identity of every Muslim, which must be protected. The wise authority called for the establishment of an institution concerned with educating the community about the importance of prayer and the necessity of its establishment, and seek to establish mosques in every place, explain the results of blessed prayer in this world and the hereafter, and clarify everything related to prayer, including duties, desirables, etiquette, and introductions. It was (the institution of prayer).

It includes the Friday Prayers Department, which is a private institution whose mission is to establish, publish and manage Friday prayers in Iraq by evaluating requests to open Friday prayers and studying the legal position related to its establishment, preparing the preachers and guiding them in a manner consistent with the teachings of the true religion and the directives of the wise authority, and developing, modernizing and enriching religious discourse.

 

 

 

 

10. Fayd Al-Zahra (Peace be upon her) Foundation/مؤسسة فيض الزهراء) (عليها السلام[19]

For the care of orphans and the poor, a humanitarian, charitable, social institution that cares about the affairs of society and the needy of the Iraqi people. This is as a contribution to building a state of institutions in various fields of life, including the material and moral building of orphans and the poor, as a step in strengthening aspects of the effective civilizational existence of the Islamic nation. And this institution is spread from the north to the south end of Iraq, which has many branches and offices in all the provinces (100).

And today it is trying to open an office outside of Iraq so that it can become a door of giving and development for the sons and daughters of these countries, and all those who are related to them in spiritual and material need. Currently, about 10000 families are benefiting from the lectures on cultural awareness, health, legal, social and financial assistance.

This institution was founded in the year 1434 AH/2013 AD, and it was registered in the Civil Society Department and received a formal permit on 9/10/2016 and the registration number is (111610028).

 

 

11- Imam al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) Center for Specialized Islamic Studies and Research/ 11- مركز الإمام الصادق (عليه السلام) للدراسات والبحوث الإسلامية التخصّصية

It is one of the specialized centers in Najaf Ashraf and works to present the real face of Islam in the Islamic world which always gives the message of mercy to the whole world.

The goal of this center is to spread knowledge and understanding, and correct religious ideas and understandings through their original sources, the Holy Quran and Sunnah benefiting from the depth of the religious experience in the holy seminary of Najaf which was playing and still plays the role of a mediator among the religious circles that spread across the globe.

It trusts in its own prepared students of religious studies and academic teachers who have been trained by this blessed seminary. In order to achieve this common goal to which the Prophets have invited, it opens the door for everyone.

The center has five departments:

 

1. Department of Quranic Studies

2. Department of Religious and Intellectual Studies

3. Department of specialized studies about Imam Mahdi (peace be upon him).

4. Department of Islamic Jurisprudence

5. Department of Philosophy of Jurisprudence.

And this center intends to open more departments which will be specialized with Islamic economics, history, science of hadith and Arabic literature... and this center has published tens of books about different fields.

 

12Library of Sheikh Al-Khutaba / مكتبة شيخ الخطباء

It is one of the public libraries in Najaf. The library contains fifteen thousand books of a variety of sciences and disciplines. It is considered one of the libraries rich in sources and old Sunni books. It also contains a large collection of theses and university theses. It has a special section for the writings of Sheikh Al-Khataba Muhammad Ali Al-Yaqoubi (may God have mercy on him), the most prominent of which are books of literature and poetry. The library is rich in scientific journals that were published in the mid-twentieth century.

 

 

13- Aalam ul-Huda Religious School/ مدرسة أعلام الهداية الدينية:

The school seeks to prepare students who will be leaders in serving religion and guiding society. Likewise it tries to persuade seminary teachers and mujtahideen. This seminary accepts only university graduates to prepare them and make them understand the sciences well and make them practical in the society. It also includes among its seminary lessons other lessons of interpretation, Quranic sciences, history, Nahj al-Balagha, and others, which help the student to understand reality and treat it in a correct Quranic and hadith manner.

 

14- The Fatimi Center for Studies and Human Development/المركز الفاطمي للدراسات والتنمية البشرية:

It came into being because of the annual blessed pilgrimage to the holy shrine of the Commander of the Faithful Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him) on the third of the month of Jumada al-Akhirah, which was called by His Eminence, the religious authority, Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi,(may his shadow last long), to commemorate the martyrdom Siddiqa Tahira Fatima al-Zahra (peace be upon her).

His Eminence called for the establishment of a Fatimi Studies Center that would undertake the scientific task of researching, authoring and investigating the biography of the pure Lady (peace be upon her) and her introduction to the Islamic and human community, and raising awareness of the various aspects of her blessed biography with the aim of constructive scientific contribution to enhancing aspects of the effective civilizational existence of the Islamic nation.

And on this basis, the Fatimi Center for Studies and Human Development (f.C.S.H.D) came into existence on Rabi al-Thani 1434 AH/February 2013. For the sake of this goal, the center relies on organizational programs that develop academic and human skills in the seminary and university to reach a real development.

This center has published many books about the Fatimi issue and has organized many conferences and competitions, as well as prepared a list of books written on the biography of Sayyida Zahra (peace be upon her) and has started publishing them.

 

 5- The Islamic Institute for Development and Studies/المعهد الإسلامي للتطوير والدراسات:

It is an Islamic development institution that organizes personal and leadership skills to build a human state and aims to enhance cultural standards and human skills. It has a strong academic syllabus that relies on pure Islamic thought and conducts workshops, training courses, leadership development programs for departments and institutions.

Activities:

1- Management Consultancy.

2- Developing strategic plans.

  3- Establishment of leadership development programs.

4- Arranging the training program.

 

 

16- Media institutions/مؤسسات إعلامية:

A. Al Naeem satellite channel/قناة النعيم الفضائية

It is a religious satellite channel aimed at spreading Islamic awareness, teachings of Ahl al-Bayt (a.s.) and useful moral, educational and social guidelines. It addresses the issues of Iraqi society and broadcasts its programs from Basra, with its main offices in Najaf and Baghdad, and branch offices in the rest of Iraq's provinces. There are many speeches of Mr. Sheikh Muhammad Yaqoobi (may his shadow last long) on the importance of media and the role of conversation in the life of the nation.

B- Bayanat Satellite Channel/قناة بيّنات الفضائية

(Specific to the Holy Qur'an from the perspective of the Ahl al-Bayt, peace be upon them) to introduce Islam and the Qur'an to the West, and it broadcasts in Arabic, English and French.

C-Radio Al-Bilad/إذاعة البلاد

  Broadcasts its programs from Baghdad.

D- Alamal Radio/إذاعة الأمل

  Broadcasts its programs from Basra.

E-Subal Salam Radio/إذاعة سبل السلام

Broadcasting from Nasiriyah.

  F- Al-Rumaitha Radio/إذاعة الرميثة

  It broadcasts its programs from Samawa province.

 

 

 

17. Major religious occasions/المناسبات الدينية الكبرى:

Among the religious projects adopted and sponsored by His Eminence the authority is the establishment of the Fatimi pilgrimage to the holy shrine of the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) on the 3rd of Jumada al-Thani every year to commemorate the martyrdom of the Siddiqa Zahra (peace be upon which contributes a lot to spreading the Fatimi cause and highlighting its great influence, as tens of thousands of believers participate in a symbolic funeral that goes to the holy shrine of the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him after Mr. Shaikh's speech on its relevance and current situation. The occasion began for the first time in 1427 AH / 2006 AD.

The second is the Husseini Awakening procession for university professors and students, held on Ashura night in Karbala the first year after the fall of Saddam's regime, with over twenty thousand university students participating in the regular march. Which starts from the University of Karbala and goes to the shrines of Imam Hussain and Hazrat Abbas (peace be upon them), and each university carries the banner of its name and so do the faculties.

And students gather in mourning processions and processions, each of which is named with an Islamic attribute or characteristic or teachings. And the love of the students of the university for Mr. Sheikh Yaqoubi is well known, and in both cases the committees provide services like food, accommodation and hospitality.

In this context, expansion took place and due to this, (Science and Religion Forum/ ملتقى العلم والدين) or (Universities and Seminary Forum/ الجامعات والحوزة العلمية) came into existence. And it continued for many years, after that the pilgrimage changed into processions of student awakening on Arbaeen, then it joined the procession of mourning in the form of mourning processions on the occasion of the Fatima pilgrimage on three Jumadi al-Thani.

 

Appendix No. 3:

Several university papers and theses for Master's and Doctoral degrees covering aspects of Mr. Marja Yaqoobi's (May his shadow last long) thought and achievements were written: Following are some of his achievements:

1. (Ethical Values in Contemporary Islamic Educational Thought/ القيم الأخلاقية في الفكر التربوي الإسلامي المعاصر) Marja Ya'qubi as a model - Wissam Ali Hatim. PhD thesis.

2. The Qur’anic significance of Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi in his interpretation of the light of the Qur’an/        الدلالة القرآنية عند الشيخ محمد اليعقوبي في تفسيره من نور القرآن

Ahmed Zuhair Abdel Aali.

3. (Human development in the thought of Imamiyyah) /التنمية البشرية في فكر الأمامية Sheikh Muhammad Yaqubi as a model - Maysam Saad Matar, Ph.D. Thesis.

4. Al-Hajjaj in the Book of Stage Speech by Sheikh Muhammad Al-Yaqoubi from 2003-2014/ الحجاج في كتاب خطاب المرحلة للشيخ محمد اليعقوبي من 2003- 2014

5. The political intellectual theses of the religious authority Yaqubi - Thaer Hadi Merhej/ الأطروحات الفكرية السياسية عند المرجع اليعقوبي - ثائر هادي مرهج

6. Contemporary Islamic media between theory and practice in the thought and visions of the religious authority, Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi - Imad Naim Abd/ الإعلام الإسلامي المعاصر بين النظرية والتطبيق في فكر ورؤى المرجع الديني الشيخ محمد اليعقوبي - عماد نعيم عبد

7. The Ain Center issued a periodical magazine entitled (Al-Islah) that deals with explaining the reform project of His Eminence Al-Ya’qubi from several aspects/ وأصدر مركز عين مجلة دورية بعنوان (الإصلاح) تعنى بشرح المشروع الإصلاحي لسماحة المرجع اليعقوبي من عدة جوانب.

 

 

Likewise, several books have been published analyzing Mr. Yaqoubi's biography and projects and his academic and practical services, including:

1. Jurisprudence rules in the Encyclopedia (Jurisprudence of Controversy) by Al-Yaqubi of Sheikh Dr. Muhammad Al-Saadi, three volumes/القواعد الفقهية في موسوعة (فقه الخلاف) للمرجع اليعقوبي للشيخ الدكتور محمد الساعدي

2. The history of Yaqoobi/تاريخ اليعقوبي  - a series of articles by the Islamic writer Kamal Al-Sayyid, which was published in several issues of Al-Islah magazine, and several other independent researches and pamphlets were published.

3. (Wise authority in its religious and motivational aspects)/ - Faisal Al-Mimi.

المرجعية الرشيدة في بعدها الرسالي والحركي 

4. Sheikh Muhammad Al-Yaqoubi from birth to leadership/الشيخ محمد اليعقوبي من الولادة الى الريادة – by Muhammad Muhaqiq Al-Afghani.

5. The religious authority leads the society/المرجعية تقود المجتمع - 3 parts - Abdul Azim Al-Asadi

6. (Sunrise)/ شروق الشمس - Salim al-Hasani/.

7. (Cultural principles of Sheikh Yaqoubi's personality)/ الأصول الثقافية في شخصية الشيخ اليعقوبي - Abdulazim Al-Asadi.

8. (Sheikh Yaqoobi.. Social authority)/ الشيخ اليعقوبي. المرجعية الاجتماعية  – Publication of Al-Nwaris.

9. (An overview of the thought of Marjiyyt)/ - Ali Khalifa Jabir. سياحة في فكر المرجعية

10. (Some Lessons on Self-Training and Civilization) دروس في تربية النفس وتهذيبها / - Samar Hakeem Al-Saadi.

11. An explanatory methodological approach between Allama al-Tabatabai and Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi/مقاربة منهجية تفسيرية بين العلامة الطبطبائي والشيخ محمد اليعقوبي

By Dr. Amjad Altai.

12. Qabas from Noor / Definition of interpretation from the light of the Qur'an/قبس من نور / تعريف بتفسير من نور القرآن

By Muhammad Taqi al-Mumin.

13. (The principle of peaceful coexistence in Islamic point of view and Marja Yaghoubi's thought and international opinion)-/ مبدأ التعايش السلمي في المنظور الإسلامي وفكر المرجع اليعقوبي والرأي العالمي-

By Faisal Al-Tamimi.

14. The phenomenon of domestication of peoples, an analysis according to the visions of His Eminence the Yaqubi (may his shadow last long)/ ظاهرة تدجين الشعوب تحليل وفق رؤى سماحة المرجع اليعقوبي (دام ظله) - Faisal Al-Tamimi.

15. The state of man in the thought of the religious authority Yaqoobi/ دولة الانسان في فكر المرجع اليعقوبي - مجموعة من الباحثين - a group of researchers.

16. (The Political and social reform in the eyes of Marja Yaqoubi)/ الإصلاح السياسي والاجتماعي عند المرجع اليعقوبي - Samira Al-Kazmi and Ahmad Al-Badairi.

17. (Milestones of political thought in the eyes of Marja Yaqoubi) معالم الفكر السياسي للمرجع اليعقوبي / - Muhammad Maan Al-Ardawi and Hasan Rishq Fayaz.

18. (Methodology of relations with the West / Yaqubi's (may his Shadow last long) approach to relations with the West)/ ميكانيزمات العلاقة مع الغرب / رؤية المرجع اليعقوبي (دام ظله) للعلاقة مع الغرب - Muhammad Taqi al-Momin.

19. (Aware Leadership / Marja Ya'qubi as a model)/ القيادة الواعية / المرجع اليعقوبي أنموذجاً - Muhammad Taqi Al-Momin.

20. (Effects of Marja Yaqoubi's Speech on the Armed Forces)/ أثر خطاب المرجع اليعقوبي في القوات المسلحة - Muhammad Al-Jaziri.

21. Al-Murj al-Ya'qubi and correction of the concepts/المرجع اليعقوبي وتصحيح المفاهيم 

By Faisal Al-Tamimi.

22. A study of the book Khitab ul Marhala/قراءة في خطاب المرحلة 

By Ali Asaaf

23. (Challenges of Cultural Invasion and Resources to cope with them)/ تحديات الغزو الثقافي وآليات المواجهة   - Ahmed Al-Badiri.

24. (Best Example / derived from the words of Shaykh Yaqoobi (may his shadow last long)/ المثل الأعلى / من وحي كلمات الشيخ اليعقوبي

 By Ali Al-Ibrahimi.

25. (Young people are the hope of the nation / According to the thought of Marja Yaqoubi)/ الشباب أمل الأمة / في فكر المرجع اليعقوبي - Muhammad Taqi Al-Momin.

26. (Correction of time / according to the guidance of the Qur'an, Sunnah and Marjiyyah)/ إصلاح الوقت / في توجيهات القرآن والسنة والمرجعية - Mr. Ayub Ahmed Al-Musawi.

27. (Mirror and Flowers, Position of Women and Their Responsibilities in the Address of Marja Yaqoubi (may his shadow last long)/ قوارير وأزاهير تعريف بمكانة المرأة ومسؤولياتها في خطاب المرجع اليعقوبي - Muhammad Taqi Al Momin.

28. (Intellectual and emotional perspective of the Ahl al-Bayt, peace be upon them / from the perspective of Marja Ya'qubi/المنهج الفكري والحركي عند أهل البيت (عليهم السلام) / من وجهة نظر المرجع اليعقوبي (دام ظله)  (may his shadow last long)-Abd al-Hadi al-Zaidi - Dr. Tayer al-Uqaili - Muhammad al-Naji.

29. (Guardianship of the Ummah: A Study of Objectives and Theoretical and Practical Structures in the Instructions of Marja Ya'qubi (may his shadow last long)/ ولاية أمر الأمة: قراءة في الأهداف والبنية النظرية والتطبيقية في توجيهات المرجع اليعقوبي (دام ظله)

By Saeed Al-Athari - Ahmed Al-Mousawi.

30.

(From the Culture of Ashura / In the light of the thought of Marja Ya'qubi (may his shadow last long) من ثقافة عاشوراء / في ضوء فكر المرجع اليعقوبي (دام ظله) / - Abd al-Azeem al-Asadi.

31. (Pluralism in the Qur'an and Sunnah / Study of the instructions of Marja Ya'qubi/التعددية في القرآن والسنة / قراءة في توجيهات المرجع اليعقوبي (دام ظله) (May his shadow last long)) - Ayub Ahmad Al-Musawi.

32. The rights of non-Muslims within the framework of religious pluralism/حقوق غير المسلمين في أطار التعددية الدينية 

By Shahabuddin Al-Husseini.

33. (The Reality of Islamic Development / In the Light of the Guidance of Marja Aqubi/تأصيل الرشد الإسلامي / في ضوء إرشادات المرجع اليعقوبي (دام ظله)   (may his shadow last long) - Dr. Mawaffaq Majeed. Ayub Ahmed Al Musawi.

34. Jafari Law / (One of the strategic objectives of / Hakimanah Marjiyyah)/ القانون الجعفري / أحد الأهداف الاستراتيجية للمرجعية الرشيدة - Qasim al-Darji.

35. (Satanic plans of the region / study of the address of Marja Yaqoubi/ المشاريع الشيطانية للمنطقة / قراءة في خطاب المرجع اليعقوبي (دام ظله) (may his shadow last long) –

By Salah Hasan Jaber.

36. Evaluation of leadership and authority between qualifications and accusations / According to the perspective of Marja Ya'qubi (may his shadow last long)/ تشخيص القيادة والمرجعية بين المؤهلات والادعاءات / بحسب رؤية المرجع اليعقوبي (دام ظله) –

By Samira Al-Kazmi.

37. (Is Tabeer (Qama Zani/Zanjir Zani) a Ritual? A Study of the Speeches of Marja Yaqoobi (may his shadow last long)/ هل التطبير شعيرة؟ دراسة في خطاب المرجع اليعقوبي (دام ظله)   -

By Salah Hasan Jaber.

 

The grand Ayatollah Yaqoobi calls for the application of the purposeful cross-border message of art in spreading the high principles of Islam and confronting foreign cultures.

In the name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful

 

The great religious scholar Sheikh Muhammad Yaqoobi met[20] the admirer of the infallibles (peace be upon them) (Abu Zar Rohi) who has become very popular for his latest religious song :( Salam Ya Mahdi).

The grand Ayatollah appreciated and praised this work of art that has become successful and that is inspirational since the publication of its first edition. The major reason of success behind this religious song is infect the sincerity and honesty of Abuzar Rohi and the participation of innocent children and its connection with the very crucial and significant issue that every free and honorable person yearns for, which is the establishment of a state of Divine Justice at the hands of the great reformer, the Awaited Imam Mahdi (may God’s prayers and peace be upon him).

 The anthem was able to raise this issue, draw attention to it, stir emotions towards it, and unite peoples over it.

During the meeting, His Highness emphasized the importance of art in advancing the ideological, moral, intellectual and social message of Islam.

Art is one of the most important tools of the soft war waged against people to enslave and (globalize) them. We must use the same tools to achieve great goals and what distinguishes art is that its message is universal, it crosses the boundaries of language, nationality and gender and is understood by all without any barriers.

The grand Ayatollah mentioned a saying by Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him):

(أحيوا أمرنا، رحم الله من أحيا أمرنا)

(Revive our command, God forgives the person who revives our command.) He also quoted the saying of Imam alaihis salam:

(فان الناس لو علموا محاسن كلامنا لاتبعونا)

(If people knew the virtues of our words, they would follow us)

He stressed on the importance of art as a big and effective tool to communicate and convey the message of Ahlulbait (peace be upon them) to people around the world. Therefore, it is necessary to use this tool to invite people to God and to spread the teachings of the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them).

 

 

 


 

[1] . Al-Yaqoubi, Muhammad Ali, Al-Babiliyat, Vol.3, p.206, Publisher: Al-Rafid for Publications - Baghdad, 1439 AH/ 2017 AD.

[2] . Al Yaqoubi, Muhammad, Sheikh Musa Al Yaqoubi His Life, poetry, p. 11, Publisher: Dar al-Sadiqeen - Najaf Ashraf, first edition, 2002.

[3] . Consult Ayan Shia, Hasoon al-Mu'ni'a, al-Tali'ah, Naqba Al-Bashr, Ma'rif al-Rijal, Babylyyat, and others.

[4] . It is published in the first and second volumes of the Encyclopedia of Stage Discourse.

[5] . One of the conversations that took place with the martyr Sayyid al-Sadr al-Thani and recorded on a cassette tape in the middle of 1998.

[6] . Fotini Christa, Elizabeth Daxer, Darin Knox, Alwijhat Karbala, p. 152, first edition, Publisher: Center for Strategic Studies, Beirut / Al-Abbas's (p) Holy Shrine 1438 AH - 2017.

[7] . Yasser Tabbaa, Sabrina Mervan, Arc Bonnern, Najaf Gate of Wisdom, p. 131, Publisher: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in cooperation with the UNESCO Office for Iraq / Omman - Jordan, 2014.

[8] . Dr.. Sabrina Mervan, Dr. Robert Cliff, Dr. Geraldine Chatelar, Najaf, History and Development of the Holy City, p. 377, UNESCO Publications / Publisher: Dar Al-Warraq Publishing 2016.

[9] . Dr.. Sabrina Mervan, Dr. Robert Cliff, Dr. Geraldine Chatelar, Najaf, History and Development of the Holy City, p. 203 UNESCO Publications / Publisher: Dar Al-Warraq Publishing 2016.

[10] . see the pictures in the documentation section

[11] . Al-Yaqoubi, Muhammad, المشتق عند الأصوليين/, Part One: Pg. 2, Manhaj Al-Osoul: Part 2, Publisher: Ashura Foundation - Holy Qom 1427/2007 AD.

[12] . Al-Yaqoubi, Muhammad, Qandeel Al-Arifeen: p. 11, Publisher: Dar Al-Sadr Religious University / Najaf Al-Ashraf 1426 AH - 2005 AD.

[13] . Please note: The book (Al-Utayd al-Uba'i for Khattab al-Murjaj al-Yaqoubi/ التصنيف الموضوعي لخطاب المرجع اليعقوبي) is a single thick volume.

[14] . Dar al-Sadiqin, Shazarat Marafiya, p. 5, this is an introductory book about Mr. Marja's works and the books and studies written about him, Publisher: Dar al-Sadiqin - Najaf Ashraf 2021 AD.

[15] . Dar al-Sadiqin, Shazarat Marafiyah, p. 8, publisher: Dar al-Sadiqin - Al-Najaf al-Ashraf 2021 AD.

[16] . It exists today under the name of Baqir ul-Uloom University (peace be upon him).

[17] . Apart from this madrasa, there are several religious madrasas in Najaf, such as the Madrasah of Imam Al-Jawad (a.s.), which was established more than ten years ago and has advanced the educational process, and the Jamia Imam al-Jawad (a.s.). which was established five years ago and whose number of students is about (200) and students in different stages take exams according to the curriculum and thus is the madrasah of Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him) in the holy city of Kufa.

[18] . and on the same pattern is the women's institution (Massīsah Multaqī ʿAlm al-Walīdīn al-Naswīya) (مؤسسة ملتقى العلم والدين النسوية).

[19] . نقابة السادة العلويين has been attached to it.

[20] . The date of the meeting is 24 Dhul Hijjah 1443 corresponding to 24/7/2022